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北京農學院 動物繁殖學

北京農學院 動物繁殖學

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內容介紹

      繁殖是生物產生與自身相似的新個體,是保證生物物種延續的最基本的生命活動之一。動物繁殖是動物生產中的關鍵環節,直接關系到畜群數量的發展,也是品種改良,提高畜群生產力的重要手段。動物繁殖學就是研究動物生殖的現象,揭示其繁殖的自然規律,并在此基礎上研究繁殖技術,調整和控制動物的繁殖過程,以充分發揮動物繁殖潛力,提高繁殖力的一門學科。

      發展畜牧業的中心任務是增加家畜的數量和提高其質量。數量的增長有賴于繁殖,質量的提高除改進培育和飼養條件外,主要也是通過繁殖才能實現,因為提高質量的根本途徑在于按照遺傳規律,選擇良種動物來繁殖后代,進行品種改良和培育新品種。因此,沒有繁殖就沒有生長,沒有生長也就沒有畜牧業的生產。可見,繁殖在畜牧業發展中的重要地位。而利用繁殖新技術提高家畜繁殖效率是畜牧業生產中極為重要的一環。

      動物繁殖學是動物科學中的一個重要組成部分,已形成一門獨立的學科。作為研究動物繁殖問題的學科,其主要任務首先是闡述動物生殖生理的普遍規律及種屬特性,以便能掌握和運用這些規律去指導動物繁殖實踐。其次,是闡述現代繁殖技術的理論基礎及傳授操作技術。

      動物繁殖學以解剖學、組織學、胚胎學、遺傳學、生理學、生物學、生物化學、營養學、生態學和行為學等為基礎,并與動物飼養學、育種學、產科學、衛生學、免疫學、傳染病學、分子生物學和獸醫學等有密切的關系。動物繁殖學主要內容可分為以下三個基本部分:

      1、生殖生理 包括配子的發生、性成熟、發情、受精、妊娠、分娩和性行為等各種生

      殖活動的生理、內分泌調節機理和各種影響因素的論述和討論,并對生殖器官、生殖細胞的形態結構和生化特性進行描述和分析。

      2、 繁殖技術 包括人工授精及母畜的發情鑒定、妊娠診斷技術,繁殖控制技術如發情

      控制、排卵控制、妊娠控制等,胚胎工程技術如體外受精、配子和胚胎冷凍、胚胎移植、胚胎性別鑒定和性別控制、細胞核移植等。

      3、 繁殖管理 討論繁殖力的評價和影響因素,繁殖障礙的診治以及提高繁殖力的措施等。

      生殖生理的內容是研究、闡明動物生殖全過程的現象、規律和機理。對動物生殖生理的研究是隨著生物科學的發展而逐漸深入的,從最初的現象觀察和性行為的描述,發展到從解剖學和細胞學的深度去認識繁殖的各種內在規律,進而提高到從生殖細胞的顯微結構、細胞生物學、生物化學及分子生物學的角度來揭示和闡明生殖過程中的現象、變化和機理。如激素和酶以及其他生物活性物質的生理效能來闡述生殖機理,解釋他們在生殖過程中的激發、抑制、調節、平衡等作用;配子發生及胚胎發育中的基因表達和調控等。

      繁殖技術是在認識動物生殖規律的基礎上,在動物生產中為提高動物繁殖力所采用的一些技術手段,這是繁殖理論與實踐相結合的具體體現。

      隨著科學研究的深入和畜牧業的發展,有關動物繁殖的理論知識、實踐經驗迅速積累,研究范圍不斷拓展,在動物繁殖學的基礎上,又發展起來很多分支學科,如動物生殖生理學、生殖內分泌學、受精生物學、精YEI生物化學、繁殖免疫學、繁殖病理學、配子與胚胎生物技術等,使動物繁殖學的理論與應用進一步向深度和廣度發展。

      動物繁殖學建立幾十年來,在動物繁殖基礎理論研究和繁殖技術的革新與創立方面都取得了舉世矚目的進展。對生殖激素本質及作用方式、生殖細胞的發生特點、受精、妊娠、分娩等主要生殖環節的調控方式及分子生物學基礎、環境條件和營養對繁殖的影響等問題,都有了更深刻的認識。隨著現代畜牧業的發展和生產需要,要求最大限度的提高動物的繁殖力,與此相適應,動物繁殖技術的研究也發展到一嶄新的階段,即繁殖控制技術階段,人為的改變和控制動物的繁殖過程,調整其繁殖規律,進一步開發其繁殖潛力,以及對配子和胚胎進行顯微操作和“加工”,這些技術可概括的稱為“繁殖生物技術”。

      20世紀70年代以來,放射免疫技術的應用,促進了生殖內分泌學的研究發展,使人們進一步了解到雌、雄動物各個不同生理階段生殖激素的變化規律及生殖內分泌的特性,為應用外源激素控制動物繁殖活動提供了依據。隨著對生殖生理的研究不斷深入,繁殖技術獲得了迅速進展,精YEI冷凍保存及其人工授精、發情控制、胚胎移植、誘發分娩、早期斷奶等技術在生產中得到不同程度的應用。

      20世紀80年代以來,配子和胚胎生物技術的研究進展十分引人注目,如動物卵母細胞的體外成熟和體外受精、胚胎的冷凍保存、胚胎分割、胚胎性別鑒定、精子分離和性別控制、轉基因動物等。90年代以來,性別決定基因的發現、精子分離新方法的創立,為性別控制的研究應用打開了新的局面,胚胎和體細胞核移植的成功和轉基因克隆動物的誕生標志著動物繁殖生物技術的蓬勃發展和對動物繁殖方式產生了極其深刻的影響,今后也必將使畜牧生產技術向更高水平發生變革,對人類的生活將產生更重大的影響。

      本課程前部分以家畜繁殖內容為主,家禽、實驗動物和經濟動物繁殖的內容分別在第九、十章中介紹,并在文字教材后附實驗指導和實習指導。本課程力求反映當前我國在動物繁殖領域的研究進展,以及國際上有關新的理論和技術進展。既重視動物繁殖的基本原理的闡述,更重視與理論密切相聯系的繁殖技術的闡述和應用。因此,動物繁殖學是一門理論密切聯系生產實踐的學科,基礎理論知識和實踐技能都不可偏廢。要求學習者認真學習,提高理論和技術水平,更好的指導動物生產實踐。

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