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清華大學 水文學原理與應用

清華大學 水文學原理與應用

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內容介紹

    《水文學原理及應用》教學大綱

     

    【課程簡介】

          《水文學原理與應用》課程的授課對象主要是水利水電工程學科的本科生,其中《水文學原理與應用》(I)在大三的上學期開設,《水文學原理與應用》(II)在大三的下學期開設,《工程水文設計》在大四的上學期開設。課程內容設置面向水文學與水資源、水利水電工程、土木工程、環境科學與工程及城市生態與人居環境等相關專業的本科學生,從水文循環出發,對水文學原理、水文分析和水文設計進行系統講解,突出基本理論、結合生產實踐、體現水文科學的發展前沿。

          新世紀我國水利水電事業的不斷發展,尤其是水資源開發利用和管理水平的不斷提高,對合格水利工作者的要求也不斷提高。《水文學原理與應用》課程的目標是:要求學生掌握流域水文循環的基本原理、流域水文計算和工程水文設計的基本方法、以及能夠應用所學知識進行實際的工程水文設計和計算;掌握有關土壤水和地下水循環的基本知識及分析方法,并應用于水資源規劃和管理。

     

    【課程主要內容】

    《水文學原理與應用》課程的重點是:系統介紹流域水文循環過程原理、水文分析計算方法及工程水文設計。

    課程的難點在于:如何使原理、方法和應用有機結合,體現知識體系邏輯性和系統性,讓學生更好地理解和掌握。

    解決辦法:加強對水文循環過程中的現象和原理的講解,提高學生對客觀自然界的認知能力。在介紹水文學基本原理時,十分注意從原理到方法的自然過渡,注重科學與生產實踐的結合。

    《水文學原理與應用》(I)中主要從降水、蒸發、下滲、產流和匯流等過程來介紹流域中的水文現象及水文過程中的原理;從探討流域水文過程的規律性,來講解流域產匯流的分析及計算方法;從水文現象的隨機性及其統計規律出發來講解工程水文設計方法。

    《水文學原理與應用》(II)中則著重介紹降雨下滲以后的土壤水分運動和地下水運動的現象和原理,將地表水和地下水相聯系,全面反映出流域中的水循環過程。通過認識土壤-作物-大氣連續體中的水分運動規律,介紹農田水資源管理中的基本原理;通過認識土壤水和地下水的相互作用,介紹地下水資源管理中的基本原理。

    《工程水文設計》中則強調將所學知識應用于解決實際問題,通過實際水利工程中的水文設計算例,讓學生更好的理解和掌握所學知識。

     

    【教材與參考書目】

    水文學原理與應用(I)

    (一)國內教材

    (1)高等學校教材《工程水文學》(第二版,清華大學王燕生主編,1992):該教材對水文學原理的講解不足,偏重工程應用,缺乏對現代水文學發展的介紹;

    (2)高等學校教材《工程水文學》(第三版,詹道江和葉守澤主編,1999):雖然適當補充了古洪水和水污染的內容,但該教材基本沿用了第二版的框架。

    (二)國外教材

    (1)《Applied Hydrology》(Ven Te Chow 等編,1988):是全球英語國家采用最廣泛的一本本科生教材,內容十分系統和全面,包括水文學原理、水文分析和水文設計。但部分知識陳舊,缺乏現代水文學的知識。

    (2)《Hydrology: An Introduction》(美國康乃爾大學Wilfried Brutsaert編,2005):是作者在30多年水文教學的基礎上總結出版的本科生教材,注重講解現代水文學原理,但缺乏應用水文學的內容。

    水文學原理與應用(II)

    (一)指定教材:

    《土壤水動力學》,雷志棟等編著,清華大學出版社,1988

    《農田水利學》,郭元裕主編,中國水利水電出版社,1995。

    (二)參考書目:

    《地下水水文學》,朱學愚等編著,中國環境科學出版社,2005

    《地下水水文學》,張元禧等編著,中國水利水電出版社,1998

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